French rule did not last in Vietnam. The Second World War saw the
country known as French Indochina fall under Japanese occupation,
although the new Japanese rulers retained their French administrators.
But France was not to regain her full political influence on Vietnam.
After the war, a series of events led to the splitting of Vietnam into
North Vietnam and South Vietnam in 1954. North Vietnam, which is
Communist country, kept Hanoi as its capital. South Vietnam is a
democracy centered on Saigon (or Sài Gòn).
Thousands of North Vietnamese fled the Communist rule, and escaped
across the border to South Vietnam. These refugee families took with
them their cherished pho recipes and introduced pho to their brethren in
the south. Here, pho is to make a turn that eventually shocked pho
purists from the north.
Unlike in North Vietnam, food is rich and abundant in South Vietnam.
Herbs and other ingredients are used liberally. The Vietnamese of the
south put their taste for the lavish on the frugal pho bac to create the
classic pho nam. They put more spices in their pho than their northern
counterparts. They experimented with other beef parts, and even used
other ingredients such as chicken and tripe. They added bean sprouts and
herb garnishing as topping on the soup. They were also very liberal
about the use of fish sauce and hoisin sauce to flavor their pho.
Pho flourished, and due to its versatility and popularity, Vietnamese eat pho everyday, at any time during the day. Pho vendors do business everywhere, from pushcarts to neighborhood street stalls, from pho restaurants to elegant bistros. But most importantly, pho is the food of the working people.
The Fall of Saigon and the Evolution of Pho
Conflicts between North and South Vietnam continued long after 1954. These conflicts were fueled by the Communist superpowers, namely the Soviet Union and Communist China, who gave their support to Communist North. Into the fray also came the Americans, who favored the Democratic South Vietnam. The conflicts became known as the Vietnam War, which raged full scale from 1963 to 1973, and ended in the Fall of Saigon in 1975.
The Fall of Saigon saw masses of Vietnamese people flee for their lives to various corners of the world. Many of them were accepted to the United States in the few years immediately after 1975, while many others tried to escape in rickety boats as “boat people” for 15 or more years to come. These Vietnamese boat people created colonies in neighboring countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, although some even reached as far as Australia and even Europe.
Among the treasures that Vietnamese refugees brought with them from their homeland were their cherished pho recipes. South Vietnamese (including Northern Vietnamese who fled to the South in 1954) were by far the majority of the refugees and what they brought with them was the Southern style pho. Before long, restaurants serving pho emerged in the communities these Vietnamese migrants established in their country of exile, and these restaurants introduced pho to their non-Vietnamese neighbors.
As time went on, an evolution of pho was seen outside of Vietnam. Although the basic ingredients were retained, pho recipes were adapted to suit whatever ingredients were available locally. Non-Vietnamese who attempted to create their own version of pho also used techniques and ingredients that are far away from the traditional methods of creating pho.
One cannot stop evolution. Personally, I admire the creativity of these chefs, but if you want good pho, then go where the crowd eats. Chances are they eat the more authentic kind.